1. Set-up equipment as in the diagram except keep the magnesium out of the acid. 2. Place the magnesium inside the conical flask and start the stopwatch at the same time. 3. Record the amount of gas produced every 5 seconds. 4. Repeat with 0. 8M, 0. 6M, 0. 4M and 0. 2M acid. Fair Testing I must keep the amount of sulphuric acid I use the same because it might speed up the reaction I must keep the length of the D-tube the same because the gas has to travel from one end to the other.
I must keep the temperature the same because I know from my research that increased temperature means a faster reactions because the particles move faster causing more effective collisions. I must keep the length of the magnesium the same as if I have more there is a larger surface area, which will increase the rate of reaction. Resaerch From my past Experiments in class Concentration should increase the rate of reaction because there are more acid particles, which means there will be more effectibve collisions.
A higher Temperature increases the rate of reaction because the particles have more energy so they move faster, which also casuses more effective collisions. A larger surface area increases the rate of reaction because there is more exposed to the acid so there are again more effective collisions. There are catalysts, which increase the rate of reaction because a catalyst is another kind of solute. From the simulation program The reaction I simulated was: Prediction I predict that the higher the concentration of sulphuric acid the faster the rate of reaction will be.
This is because in my experiment on the computer the results showed exactly that. The explanation for the higher rate of reaction is because the solute (in the case of HCL + CaCO3 it would be HCL) reacts with the magnesium. The more solute there is then the faster the reaction will happen because the are more particles to collide so there will be more effective collisions where bonds are broken and made.
This is more easily explained in a diagram. Less Solute = Slower reaction More Solute = Faster reaction Results 1 Molar Sulphuric Acid 3cm Magnesuim ribbon Time (s) Amount gas 1 (cm3) Amount gas 2 (cm3) Amount gas 3 (cm3) Average amount Results 0. 6 Molar Sulphuric Acid 3cm Magnesuim ribbon Time (s) Amount gas 1 (cm3) Amount gas 2 (cm3) Amount gas 3 (cm3) Average amount esults 0. 4 Molar Sulphuric Acid 3cm Magnesuim ribbon Time (s) Amount gas 1 (cm3) Amount gas 2 (cm3) Amount gas 3 (cm3) Average amount Results 0. 2 Molar Sulphuric Acid 3cm Magnesuim ribbon Time (s) Amount gas 1 (cm3) Amount gas 2 (cm3) Amount gas 3 (cm3) Average amount.
Conclusion I found that the higher the concentration of acid the faster the reaction finished. I think that this is because There are more acid particles in the solution which means there will be more effective collisions thus increasing the rate of reaction. There are more effective collisions because if there are more solute particles then the particles will be colliding more frquently. If there are more collisions in a shorter space of time then the same percent will be effective collisions but there will be a higher frequency of effective collisions as there are more collisions.
This is proved by my results. This means that my prediction was correct. Evaluation Overall the experiment went well, however I had one or two anomalous results but most seemed close to the average. What should have happened in the experiment was that an equal amount of gas was produced each time because I used the same amount of magnesium. Infact the amount ranged from 34cm3 to 53cm3 this is because when I cut the magnesium ther may have been small differences in the length.
Another reason is that in one lesson I used very old magnesium that looked like it had half reacted and in another lesson I used new, shiny magnesium meaning that there would be less particles to react and produce gas so thee would be less gas. Also the gas syringe is not perfect and it takes quite a bit of gas to ove it so it moves in steps. another reason is for 0. 2 molar acid I didn’t use a gaas syringe as the experiment took so long I had to do 2 at the same time. The last reason is how far I pushed the bung into the top of the conical flask as this pushed air into the gas syringe.
Bearing that in mind the results were all quite close to the average. If I was to do the experiment again I would note down the temperature of the acid before I put the magnesuim in as temperature is a different variable. I would also use only shiny magnesium and take care in measuring it. I would leave lots of time to do the experiment and measure the concentrations of acid more carefully. Rodger Read 10D Show preview only The above preview is unformatted text This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our GCSE Patterns of Behaviour section.