To establish the relationship between the heights from which the ball bearing was dropped and the depth of the crater created in the sand. Apparatus: – – 1 x clamp (stand) – Somewhere to record your results. – 1 x ball bearing (0. 0165kg) – 1 x Boss head – 1 x tray full of sand – 1 x Magnet – 5 – 10 candles – 1 x Nail – Matches – Goggles – Newspaper – 1 x 1 metre ruler How your apparatus should be set up –> Method: – 1- Get all the Apparatus out, and set it up like it is shown above. 2- Place the clamp with the boss head outside of the sand tray.

Then put the 1 metre ruler into the boss head, so the ruler goes straight down to the bottom of the sand tray. Make sure the ruler is straight (at a 90 i?? angle) 3- This is how the experiment should take place, by holding the magnet at the height you wish to drop it, and they holding the nail in front of the magnet, so then the magnet and the nail attach, 4- Then hold the ball bearing roughly 1cm away from the nail 5- Drop the ball bearing 3 times for each height. Making sure you apply no pressure when dropping the ball bearing, to make it as fair as possible.

Repeat this 3 times for 10 different heights in my case (3 x 10cm, 3 x 20cm, 3 x 30 cm, 3 x 40cm, 3 x 50cm, 3 x 60cm, 3 x 70cm, 3 x 80cm, 3 x 90cm, 3 x 100cm) but only do one height at a time, so start with 3 x 10cm. I chose these heights, as I thought they where appropriate for the experiment we did. I chose them not be the same range from each height to the next to make it a clear comparison between them all. 6- Put out the newspaper next to the sand tray, and light the candle. 7- Hold the candle above the crater; tilt it slightly so the wax dips into the crater that was created.

Let the wax dip into the 3 craters you made, making sure that it fills up to the full level, but don’t go over the top, wait until they have set properly, and lift it out of the sand and onto the newspapers. 8- Then record your results like I have done of the graph paper. 9- Do the same experiment, on the same heights but do each height 5 times, and record the results. Calculation: GPE = m. h. g. = KE = 1/2mv2 Therefore v = V (2. h. g) Results Table Height (m) GPE (Joules) KE(Joules) Velocity(m/sec).

DATA ANAYLIS – graphs.  The first graph I did was on my first set of results, which I test each height 3 times, the graph showed the relationship between the depth of crater to the height it was dropped. – On my results table (depth of crater, height dropped from) which is on the back of the first graph, I circled two of my results which I feel are outliers, as they were way out of the other results that I had recorded.

– I think the outliers were caused by either the person dropping the ball bearing applied some pressure, or it wasn’t dropped at the exact height, or the sand was unlevel. We didn’t include most of the outliers which I thought were extravagantly different to my other results, so it wouldn’t affect my overall results that much. I also didn’t include the extravagant outliers on my averages; otherwise i would get an invalided set of data. – I think most my results on my first experiment were reliable, but to make it fairer dropping the ball at more than 3 times, it would have made it even more reliable, than it already was.

Graph #2 – My second graph showed the same as the first (showed the relationship between the height of depth of crater to the height it was dropped) but with an improved method. – My second sets of results, in my opinion were a lot more reliable, as I tested it 5 times for each height, instead of 3 like the last time. – Therefore I didn’t find any outlier, meaning my results were very reliable, because we made sure we did the second set of results more accurately and took more time.